Basic photo watermarking on an iPhone

If you happen to take images of ‘stuff happening’ that might be newsworthy and that you want to share but not have mis-used there are apps that let you add a watermarks. I presume these watermarks can also be removed later, presumably by you (but perhaps by newspapers) so I might suggest screenshotting the image first and sharing that instead. Screenshotting also means minimal EXIF data. But you can do it without apps too and just draw your initials on the picture and only remove them when you send (by DM) a copy of the image to media sites you want to [though this won’t stop someone from passing it on I suppose…].

For iPhone users you can draw on any picture in the Camera roll –

  1. Make a duplicate copy of the photo first (to keep the original safe)
  2. Draw your watermark on the copy
  3. Screenshot the watermarked copy and share that (watermark possibly harder to remove because it’s no longer layered on top of the image, and EXIF data is hidden)
  4. Resizing the image if necessary

1. Duplicate the original

Have the photo open, click the upload icon (the one on the left in the all-blue icons picture below), then choose Duplicate which is the middle grey icon in the second image below. Note that you may have to scroll right to find this option.

1A

Screenshot 2019-08-17 20.32.58
Pic 1. It’s the one with the arrow bursting out of an empty box, on the left

1B

Screenshot 2019-08-17 20.34.21
Pic 2. Duplicate icon is a grey rectangle with a white + & a single grey rectangle behind.

Once you’ve created your duplicate open that one (you can slide back and forth between the two copies).

2. Draw your watermark

Click on the Edit option (on the right in the pic below), then choose the three overflow dots in a circle (•••), then click Markup.

2A
Screenshot 2019-08-17 20.38.56

2B
Screenshot 2019-08-17 20.40.34

2C
Screenshot 2019-08-17 20.41.44

You’ll have the option of various pen thicknesses, and colours to choose from. To select the colours click on the (()) symbol…

2D                         and                  2E
Screenshot 2019-08-17 20.56.45   Screenshot 2019-08-17 20.58.11

…or you can add text by clicking on the (+) at the end (in pic above).

2F
Screenshot 2019-08-17 20.55.56

Once you’ve added whatever watermark format you’ve chosen and clicked DONE twice (once in blue at the top right of the photo, and once in yellow at the bottom right) you’ve completed the ‘add watermark’ to your duplicate image bit of the process.

2G

IMG_1595.jpg
“Watermarked” image.

3. Screenshot it

Click on the image to remove the white borders (the bits saying the current date / time, battery info or whatever’s currently on your phone) and to see the image just on its own – usually with a black border at top and bottom. The two images in 3A below are identical, the only difference is the white or black border – this is a toggle-click, where clicking once hides the phone info and clicking again brings it back, and so on.

3A

Press the ON/OFF button and HOME button simultaneously (iPhone) to make a screenshot which is saved to your cameraroll. (You can do the white-border one too of course but may need to do an extra step of pruning out the additional info)

This is the image that you should share.

4. Resizing / removing the white or black borders

If you want to prune out the borders outside the relevant image, or only want to share a particular portion of the image then use the cropping tool to do this.

Click the image again to bring up the white borders which shows the options. Click Edit (see 2A), then the white square tool from 2B which will go white as shown at the bottom of the three images in the panel below.

Screenshot 2019-08-17 23.07.41.png

Left: the square button brings up the resizing boundary – you can use the corners or sides to shrink the picture. Middle – I’ve taken most of the top black border off and the resulting image now takes up more space on the screen. Right – I’ve pruned out all of the unnecessary bits. The next thing I click on is Done (in yellow, bottom right of each pic).

 

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How to tweak (digitise) drawings in Inkscape

I’ve been playing with Inkscape, a free open-source image processing tool. For a project I need to draw some cartoonish images and clean them up and I’m learning how to do that thanks to YouTube and Inkscape’s own tutorials.

Note: If you’re using Inkscape on a Mac you may also need to download XQuartz; note that you use the Ctrl key not the Command key in Inkscape. Similar software is Gimp (free) and Adobe Photoshop (not free). I’m also teaching myself to use Scribus, a layout tool, but I mostly use PowerPoint for that at the moment.

Here’s a drawing of a house (biro on white paper) photographed by my iPhone and emailed to myself. Scanning it in would give a much better starting image to work with and drawing it more neatly etc etc but I’m just playing for now.

Screenshot 2019-04-16 17.32.56

Imported into Inkscape by File > Import and OK-ing whatever suggestion it gives

Screenshot 2019-04-16 17.33.21

Once imported ensure it’s selected (click on it if not) and that the arrows are double-headed, then choose Path > Trace Bitmap

Screenshot 2019-04-16 17.35.34

Fiddling about with the settings … (use Update to see how it’s going before using OK to apply)…

Screenshot 2019-04-16 18.17.22

…produces a layer which can be moved away from the main image, resulting in a separate clean black and white image.

 

The resulting image…

Screenshot 2019-04-16 17.38.13

Further tweaking can be done by using the node tool (looks a bit like an archer’s bow between the pointer icon and wave (?) icon in the panel on the left below) and moving the lines about but I’ve not bothered with that for now.

Screenshot 2019-04-16 17.39.42

OK I had a bit of a play around with it. Stretched the E.  (Eeeeee !)

Screenshot 2019-04-16 18.22.58         Screenshot 2019-04-16 18.23.11       Screenshot 2019-04-16 18.23.18

Things I’ve learned after a few hours’ play

I have not been saving images as .svg files (which is, I think, what I am supposed to do) and am. just cheating, copying a screenshot and pasting into my .pptx presentation. I’ve noticed that enlarging the image once in the PowerPoint neans that it looks a bit grainy so I recommend enlarging it in Inkscape by zooming in, taking a screenshot of that and then it will look better.

I’ve also had some fun with the ‘bucket’ tool which fills an area with colour. Also the resizing tool (hold the Ctrl key [Mac users you too, not Command] to enlarge or shrink while keeping the same aspect ratio.

Screenshot 2019-04-19 13.18.52.png

 

How the order of links in tweets determines which one gets its accompanying image displayed

tl;dr – the last link in a tweet is the one that will show up with a media preview if that link has Twitter cards associated with it (eg almost all news sites).

If two links are tweeted but one has cards and the other doesn’t then the order doesn’t matter, the cards link always shows up.

If a tweet includes the link to another tweet then the tweet will always appear (it will look the same as how a quote RT looks) because a linked tweet will override any other link that has media preview capability / Twitter cards. (If two tweet links are shared then the last one shows up)

If you want to override any of this and control what appears in the media preview you can just upload or paste in an image.


Some tweets that have a link included will display the text of the tweet and the text of the link – the whole tweet is just text, with the link in a different colour (often blue, but different profile colours chosen can mean they’ll show in a different colour if you’re on their profile).

This is my test account ‘FriendlyBlocker‘ (set up to test Twitter’s block functions) publishing a tweet which contains only a link to a Wikipedia article I wrote on the nonsense that is CEASE therapy – the link shows up as a link.

Screenshot 2019-02-15 23.03.15
Tweet with a Wikipedia link in it

In a different tweet below I’ve shared a link to a BBC article, and nothing else. The link is nowhere to be seen in the ‘bit where the text would go’. Instead there’s just a clickable picture that takes you to the article. This is because the BBC site has set up Twitter cards so that the shared link automatically pulls the image from the BBC’s website and displays it as a media preview. The link shows up as a picture.

Screenshot 2019-02-15 23.05.25
Tweet with a BBC link in it

 

I’ve occasionally shared more than one link in a tweet and expected one of them to show up as a picture and been a bit surprised when the other one has. I thought I’d investigate what role the order of the links might play, and different types of links. Here are the results of my study into this phenomenon 😉

  1. If one of the links is associated with Twitter Cards and the other one isn’t then the order dosn’t matter at all, the cards one will always be displayed as the image. You can always override this by uploading an image to your tweet, then both links will show as links. (You can upload an image or just Ctrl+V to paste one in).

    Screenshot 2019-02-15 23.13.43
    Two tweets both containing the same two links to Wikipedia article and to this blog. As WordPress blogs have Twitter cards and Wikipedia seems not to, the WP blog post is always displayed as an image and not just as a link.
  2. Where two or more links each having Twitter cards associated with them then the order does matter. From my mildly extensive testing it seems that LAST is where to put the one you want to appear as the image.

    Screenshot 2019-02-15 23.16.52
    Two tweets with two links, with the order of the links reversed. Both links have Twitter cards associated with them and in both cases the second link posted is the one that shows up as an image.
  3. It looks like the link of another tweet included in a tweet (as opposed to retweeting) will override any other link that has a Twitter card.
    Screenshot 2019-02-15 23.25.19
    Two tweets, two links (one of them to another tweet) showing that the order makes no difference and the Twitter card for the tweet is always diplayed.

    Again this could be overridden by including a separate image if you don’t want the text of the tweet to show up and do want the image to show up of the link.

    Screenshot 2019-02-15 23.30.52
    Adding an image overrides the Twitter cards and makes the order of the links irrelevant.

    Note that quote tweeting the tweet and adding a link also doesn’t work, the tweet will override whatever link is added in the quote part.

    Screenshot 2019-02-15 23.33.26
    A quote RT of a tweet, with a link to this blog (which has Twitter cards associated with it) added. The tweet overrides and shows up in the media area.
  4. Just to demonstrate that it’s the LAST position for the link to show up as the image in the media area (where all links have cards associated with them, and none of them is a tweet URL…) here are three links with the order varied, in all cases the link placed last is the one that shows up as the picture.If one of the links is a tweet that’ll override everything else and always show up, regardless of the order.

    This is what I wrote for the three tweets, from top to bottom.

    Link B (BBC) https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/science-environment-47242477
    Link C (Buzzfeed) https://www.buzzfeed.com/farrahpenn/cleaning-hacks-that-are-borderline-genius
    Link A (blog) https://howtodotechystuff.wordpress.com/2017/07/27/hate-seeing-other-peoples-likes-on-twitter-some-options-to-try/

    Link A (blog) https://howtodotechystuff.wordpress.com/2017/07/27/hate-seeing-other-peoples-likes-on-twitter-some-options-to-try/
    Link C (Buzzfeed) https://www.buzzfeed.com/farrahpenn/cleaning-hacks-that-are-borderline-genius
    Link B (BBC) https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/science-environment-47242477

    Link A (blog) https://howtodotechystuff.wordpress.com/2017/07/27/hate-seeing-other-peoples-likes-on-twitter-some-options-to-try/
    Link B (BBC) https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/science-environment-47242477
    Link C (Buzzfeed) https://www.buzzfeed.com/farrahpenn/cleaning-hacks-that-are-borderline-genius

    Screenshot 2019-02-15 23.54.37

  5. And for completists here are tweets containing two links to two other tweets, re-ordered. In both cases the last link is the one that shows up.

    Screenshot 2019-02-16 14.00.40
    https://twitter.com/JoBrodie/status/1077394079955193856
    https://twitter.com/JoBrodie/status/1077393442769174528

    The text of the URL for the tweets is shown above (made as non-clicky links to show the actual link, WordPress automatically converts tweet URLs to an embedded tweet)

 

 

List of resources for finding Public Domain, Creative Commons or otherwise free images

I’ve been using Pixabay for a while ever since a colleague told me about it, it’s amazing. I also came across Pexels and periodically gather other things together. I’ve known about NASA images and CDC PHIL for years and Flickr of course as resources of images but I keep finding more. This excellent blog post (10 Sites for Free Stock Photos (Updated for 2018) by Sean Filidis) lists a whole load of ones I’d not heard of.

I’ve added some extra ones to Sean’s list (mine are asterisked) but you should definitely go and look at Sean’s post because he says a bit more about what each site offers.

Further reading at the end 🙂

  1. * CDC PHIL (Public Health Image Library) – public health image library (example of CDC’s request for acknowledgement “This image is in the public domain and thus free of any copyright restrictions. As a matter of courtesy we request that the content provider be credited and notified in any public or private usage of this image.NB these include medical images and search results may not be suitable for children.
  2. * Creative Commons search
  3. * Flickr Advanced Search – change the ‘Any licence’ option to suit. The obvious white search bar in the middle is, curiously, not the actual search bar despite the cursor arriving there first. The minute you start typing in it the secondary grey search bar at the top will immediately take over, so you might as well write there anyway. I cannot account for it!

    Flickr advanced search showing where to access licence options Screenshot 2018-10-16 14.23.53.png

  4. * Freebies Gallery (formerly Public Photo)
  5. * Google Images (handy tip: use -pinterest in your search, then adjust the licence you want, Tools » Usage rights)

    Google Image search for flowers showing Tools and Usage rights aka License options Screenshot 2018-10-16 14.20.35.png

  6. Gratisography
  7. Morguefile
  8. * NASA – I think almost all US Government department images, when taken as part of publicly-funded work, are free to use though they might like credit too. Here are NASA’s media-use guidelines.
  9. Picjumbo
  10. Pexels
  11. Pikwizard
  12. Pixabay <– I’ve used this one a lot
  13. * Public Domain Review – a collection of collections, eg this lovely one on comets aka Flowers of the Sky.
  14. Rawpixel
  15. Reshot
  16. * Science Museum Group collection – use freely, but only for non-commercial projects. Images are from the Science Museum in London, Railway Museum etc
  17. Stockvault
  18. Unsplash
  19. * Wellcome Collection images – free to use with attribution (credit) but check for individual photos

An * just means I’ve added this resource to Sean’s list (also reordered alphabetically).

1. What terms mean and how you can use images

Images that are labelled as Public Domain (or CC0) can be used for any purpose including commercial and you don’t need to credit the person who took it (but it’s still nice if you do) or pay for it. Creative Commons-labelled images have different ‘levels’ of how they can be used – they don’t cost money but you may have to credit the author, and you may not be able to use them on commercial projects. Some image repositories (like Pixabay) share images that can be used under a very relaxed license but also include a tip jar so that you can ping the author the equivalent of a cup of coffee.

See also Best practices for (Creative Commons) attribution

2. Embedding images into blog posts (for example)

Obviously if you’re printing a brochure you’d need to be able to download a high-res image and attribute as appropriate (or not needed if CC0, or no attribution requested).

Flickr, for example, generally takes care of attribution itself.

  1. Autoembedding from link: For a WordPress.com blog like this one simply pasting the link into the post will result in the image appearing, already linking back to its page on Flickr for people to find out who took it.
  2. Embed code: For Blogger.com sites this auto-embedding doesn’t work so for things like that you’d use the embed code. The code carries attribution info and a link back so is just another way of doing (1)
  3. Downloading: You can save a copy of the image then upload to your site – doing this means it will no longer carry any info about author attribution (beyond the filename, unless you change it). You would need to add a caption or find some other way of referencing it appropriately.

3. Further reading

Getting reimbursed for social media images used in newspapers without your permission

Stolen photographs: what to do?” – this is probably worth reading before you act

If you are in the US you can register your work with the US Copyright Office and you can even do this after the image / video has been used. While you automatically own the copyright anyway registering seems to increase the amount of statutory damages you can claim.

Every few weeks I see a flurry of tweets about someone whose photo, which they shared on Twitter, has been used online (and possibly in print) in a newspaper without their permission. Quite often someone from the newspaper in question has asked if they can use the photo and then the paper has gone ahead and used it even where permission was denied.

There seems to be no currently known or effective way of preventing such unauthorised re-use but a handful of people have reported retrospective success in getting paid for use of the photo as well as additional payment for its unauthorised use. This post points to some of those successes and information about what your rights are – note however that I am not a lawyer, always seek advice from appropriately qualified people if you need it.

Don’t be fobbed off by responses mentioning the ‘public domain’

If you take a photograph it is automatically yours in terms of copyright and sharing it on social media doesn’t grant anyone else automatic rights to re-use it. Pictures posted to Twitter or anywhere else are not automatically “in the public domain” even though they are public and available to be seen by everyone. The phrase ‘public domain’ has different meanings in different contexts but in legal / copyright terms it does not simply mean ‘displayed in public‘: “The legal term public domain refers to works whose exclusive intellectual property rights have expired, have been forfeited, have been expressly waived, or are inapplicable” – Wikipedia. If you’ve posted your photo somewhere you get to decide how it’s used.

Other examples include this from 2010 and from 2008.

Generally for practical purposes it’s usually fine to embed the image elsewhere because doing so links back to the original post with credit. Presumably people could object to this of course (I am not aware of examples). Ironically in this post I have embedded tweets above which contain images that were used without permission by one newspaper…

Note that online newspapers can also benefit from advertising revenue, which may depend on the number of page visits – so your image may also be contributing to their income.

If you are asked on Twitter by a newspaper to use your image, take a screenshot of their tweet and of your reply, showing context.

How people have responded to requests to use their images

This 2017 post outlines a disappointing phone call with newspaper staff about images used without permission and the photographer includes a copy of the letter they sent. The blog post hasn’t yet been updated with an outcome but there’s an interesting comment from ‘Frank’ who recommends that people speak with a lawyer before contacting an infringing party. They point to a 2011 article from Editorial Photographers United Kingdom and Ireland called “Stolen photographs: what to do?” – this is probably worth reading first, before contacting the paper.

• Two people who got paid after contacting a newspaper that used their images
This blog post (from 2012) outlines how a photographer recovered payment for the unauthorised use of his images – he also recommends remaining polite and professional, and suggests watermarking images (see Watermarking note below). Another post (also from 2012) had similar success in getting payment and a link added into the infringing article which pointed back to their website.

• One person who got paid after instigating Court proceedings
This, from just a few days ago (28 Feb 2018), is a nice story of persistence, but did involve learning quite a lot about the legal world before being able to proceed. I was particularly interested in the bit about the Tomlin order, which I’d not heard about before.

Watermarking

For people using smartphones to take images of ‘stuff happening’ that then becomes newsworthy there are apps that let you add watermarks and comments. I presume these can also be removed later, presumably by you (but perhaps by newspapers) so I might suggest screenshotting the image first and sharing that instead. For iPhone users on iOS 10+ there’s apparently something helpful within the Camera roll that lets you write on your pics.

Incidentally as far as I’m aware a screenshot also has minimal EXIF data.

Further reading

Freelance fees guide – Photography
Photographer wins $1.2 million from companies that took pictures off Twitter (2013) and the background to that story.
Can we use your photo? (9 March 2018) Articulate
He Said No, Fox News Used His Images Anyway (28 May 2018) Photoshelter Blog
• Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988 – rights and remedies of copyright owner

For journalists

How to: know when to use photos from social media (2011)

The image accompanying this post is ‘CC0’ licensed which means that it can be used without attribution, but in case you want to use it too I got it from https://pixabay.com/en/copyright-media-warning-exclamation-40846/

How to add alt-text descriptions to pictures on Twitter for visually impaired people

I’ve seen a couple of tweets and Twitter threads in the last couple of days that have gone a bit viral, highlighting that everyone can set something up in their Twitter settings to make things easier for visually impaired users. If you switch ON the option to be able to caption your photos then, whenever you upload a pic to Twitter, you can click on the image and add a text description. This description doesn’t show up in your tweet (it doesn’t impinge on your character limit) but is useful for those using voice software.

  1. History
  2. How to set it up
  3. Write good descriptions

1. History: Twitter rolls out the ability to add alt text in 2016, initially just for phone apps I think, then later it rolls out to everything.

2. How to set it up

Full info in How to make images accessible for people but for desktop users (like me) the steps look like this, below.

a) Go to https://twitter.com/settings/account and scroll to the bottom of the panel on the left, click on Accessibility.

Screenshot 2018-01-06 00.12.14

b) Make sure there’s a tick next to ‘Compose image descriptions’

Screenshot 2018-01-06 00.14.00

Example of what it looks like when you upload a picture to desktop

Screenshot 2018-01-06 00.41.22

Click anywhere on the image to Add description and write your text in the box that appears.

Screenshot 2018-01-06 00.41.55

3. Write good descriptions: Lovely thread from RobotHugsComics (h/t ScottKeir) with suggestions of what to actually write in the description window.

 

How to display Instagram pictures correctly in tweets using IFTTT

If you post to Instagram and it sends a copy to Twitter then only a link appears, Twitter doesn’t display your image in the tweet. The reason is because Instagram does not support ‘Twitter cards’(1) but you can(2) bypass this by using the third party service IFTTT (If This, Then That) to get around it and display images correctly. Once you upload a new image to Instagram it will get tweeted out and display as a picture (note that it won’t work in cases where you write a tweet and include an Instagram link).

Be aware that if you have ‘post to Twitter’ switched on on your Instagram account then you may end up with two copies of the tweet – one directly from Instagram with no image (the wrong one), and the one via IFTTT with the image (the new and improved version). You can safely switch off the Instagram one (see my image below of my settings).

You will need, and to be logged into

  • a Twitter account
  • an Instagram account
  • an IFTTT account

Once logged into IFTTT visit this recipe(3) page Tweet your Instagrams as native photos and follow the instructions to ‘connect’ your Twitter (https://ifttt.com/twitter) and Instagram (https://ifttt.com/instagram) accounts – IFTTT refers to these as ‘channels’.

ifttttwitter

This will allow your Twitter and Instagram accounts can talk to each other independently, through IFTTT.

Once done it should look a bit like this and when you post an image to Instagram and it should turn up on your Twitter timeline with the picture appearing.

0000ifftttwitterinsta

It worked… [if you’re viewing on a mobile it will probably look as if it didn’t, but it did!]

Note that these are my settings on Instagram – it says that I have Twitter-sharing switched off, which is true, but the IFTTT recipe is now overriding this.

photo.PNG

(1)Twitter cards are basically a display-format that websites can sign up to so that pictures embed and display on Twitter as an image rather than as a link that you have to click on. The IFTTT system uploads the image to Twitter as a (usually hidden, but may show on mobile apps as a pic.twitter link and also provides a link back to the original Instagram (that link will show as iff.tt).

(2)However you might prefer that people click on the link so that your Instagram account gets the relevant metrics and you might also prefer that Twitter isn’t further overrun with images 🙂

(3)There are other examples of recipes that will also perform this function, have a search of the options and see what’s on there.