• Google cache (& other search engines): finding deleted pages or seeing your words on the page in colour

Search engines crawl and index webpages and save copies of them. This can be useful if a page has been deleted and you want to see what was last on it or if you need to take screenshots as evidence etc. Some search engines will also show you your search terms highlighted in different colours – this is useful in showing you the relevance of the page, ie whether or not your words are closely located in a paragraph or randomly scattered on the page.

When working at Diabetes UK I used Google’s cached pages for almost every search I ran until Google stopped providing this service to logged in users (!), though it’s still available if you log out, and on other search engines (see below). “If the page has the word diabetes in some side-bar or mentioned in passing (not useful to me, I want stuff about my search terms) this is immediately cued to me in a delightful display of colours.” (Source, my main blog).

1. Finding a deleted page on Google

Search for the page* but instead of clicking on the blue linked title in your search results click instead on the small green arrow next to the address (URL) and then choose the Cached option. If there’s no green arrow there might not be a cached version, but have a look at other cache options including the Wayback Machine.

Screen Shot 2016-03-12 at 09.42.22

If the page has since been deleted then the Cached version will give you the last-saved-by-Google option. Other search engines do similar things.

2. Seeing your search terms helpfully highlighted

Google no longer offers this to logged-in users (if you’re happy to try out browser add-ons and scripts there’s some advice in the link above) but other search engines do – Bing is one example. Here’s what a search result looks like and then what the highlighted page looks like.

Screen Shot 2016-03-12 at 09.50.42

Cached page below showing highlighted search terms –

Screen Shot 2016-03-12 at 09.55.44.png

3. Finding words onscreen on any page

Even without the useful highlighting of cached copies you can still find your search terms on any page (website, Word document, PDF, spreadsheet) by using the Find option.

  • On a PC it’s Ctrl+F (or Edit menu, Find)
  • On Macs it’s cmd+F
  • On iPhones you can find a word on Safari by clicking the URL to highlight it and type your word. Although this deletes the URL (it will return if you press Cancel, or you can copy it to paste back later) it will show you a range of options including, if you scroll down, any evidence that your word appears on that page. I’d agree that it’s not a very intuitive system.

*Search tips – obviously “words appearing on the page” is always a good search strategy but you can also restrict your search to a particular site, eg site:www.diabetes.org.uk or inurl:diabetes, you can even search for the web address itself, in the example given in (1) you would type http://www.diabetes.org.uk/kidneys into Google’s search bar.


• How to use Storify like a pro to collect tweets

This is an overview post, if you’d like something more in-depth I’ve written a longer version on my main blog, here: How to use Storify


Storify is a free tool (paid options available) that lets you collect together a whole load of tweets on a topic, or from a person, or a conversation and re-order them so that the oldest tweet appears first. Not just tweets, any ‘atom’ of social media (a blog post, a YouTube video) can be included in the story, and you can insert commentary in between the different items. If you have a Twitter account you can authorise Storify via Twitter, so you don’t need to create a separate account.

Here’s what the top part of the interface looks like, on the left is the editing window and on the right are the options to collect source material. Screen Shot 2015-08-06 at 11.43.31 Here’s the options panel enlarged, with the Twitter option selected. There are a number of sub-options within each option. Screen Shot 2015-08-06 at 11.48.18

The sub-options are Search (shown, left), User (type any user’s name in to see their tweets, Favorites (type any user’s name in to see their favourites), Timeline (to see the tweets of people you follow) and List (type in the web address of a list to see it [example]).

Another useful option, hidden within the three dots ••• is the Embed URL option which lets you take the address of anything on the web and add that in (including tweets).

You can also connect your Instagram account in order to search other instagrammed pics, but if you don’t want to do that just find the pic’s address on Instagram and use the Embed URL option to put it in the Storify.

Capturing hashtags
A typical use of Storify is to collect all tweets that contain a particular hashtag. To do this you’d just type the hashtag into the Twitter search option as shown above. Once you’ve done this it’ll tell you how many you’ve found and give you the option to ‘add all’ or click and drag the ones you’ve got. I strongly recommend ignoring this and scrolling to the bottom to the ‘find more’ link and doing that a few times then using the add all option to move them into the editing window. Once you’ve moved tweets into the left window if you then do the ‘find more’ there’s a risk you’ll end up with duplicates.

If you wish, click on the Reorder option at the top of the editing window and arrange them so that the earliest tweet is displayed first. Note that if you’ve added any commentary (by clicking in the space between tweets which creates a new text box) then this will be pushed to the bottom, as it was created most recently. I strongly recommend getting all your tweets and other items in the order you want before adding in text comments.

Capturing conversations
You can use Twitter search operators to capture conversations. For example from:adamrutherford to:deepakchopra will bring up one side of a rather entertaining conversation, and you can reverse it to get the other side. You can bring up both at once by typing adamrutherford deepakchopra but note that this will also bring up tweets from other people joining in (which you may want of course).

If there’s a tweet you’re after you can search for it on Twitter and copy its address (URL) from its timestamp, shown below in the link saying Aug 5. Right click, copy address will copy the tweet’s URL. Screen Shot 2015-08-06 at 23.25.46 Use the Embed URL tool to search for the tweet via Storify and then drag it into place.

Note: I’ve categorised this post both as notTwitter (cos it’s a different service) and also Twitter (cos it’s mostly used to capture tweets!). I realise this is a bit confusing 😉

Searching for words and phrases on Twitter

Hashtags (they look like this: #word or #phrase, eg #Event2015) are the easiest things to search because they form clickable links (click on one and you’ll be taken to the search results page for that tag).

If you’re using a phone or tablet app you’ll probably see all of the hashtagged tweets with the most recent at the top but if you’re viewing on desktop Twitter you’ll probably be shown the Top tweets for that tag first, and you can click ‘Live‘ to see ALL of them.

Screen Shot 2015-07-18 at 00.54.36

To search for anything on a Twitter third party app you’ll likely have either a search box or a magnifying glass symbol which will bring this option up. For really detailed searches I recommend using the desktop Twitter version which has all the bells and whistles.

Basic search is at https://twitter.com/search-home
Advanced search is at https://twitter.com/search-advanced and the list of operators (eg how to modify your search best) are below.

Searching for a tweet sent by someone
Use the from:username format to find all tweets sent by someone about a particular topic. Here are all my tweets mentioning the river Thames: from:jobrodie thames

You can adapt the search string to find tweets sent from:username to:someoneelse keyword to find all tweets sent from one account to another on a particular topic.

Screen Shot 2015-07-18 at 13.13.23

Further reading
Searching for a link (URL, address) on Twitter

Sharing a tweet via its link will likely notify the user

Every tweet sent has its own web page with an address (URL) that will point to it. You can share this link in a tweet of your own, how the tweet appears will depend on what app or platform other readers are using.

On Echofon for iPhone the tweet will appear as your text plus a clickable link to the tweet but on desktop Twitter the system will convert the tweet’s link into a visible embedded tweet that shows up without having to click on the link or tweet to view it. I believe this is the same on Twitter for iPhone etc. It will also appear in the Notifications tab of the original tweet sender.

It’s important to be aware of this as people have previously used this technique to ‘sub-tweet’ (ie send a critical tweet about someone else’s tweet without that person being aware). Fortunately, or unfortunately, Twitter changed how such tweets were handled and this is now more easily discoverable. Previously they’d have had to search for tweets mentioning their username, eg by searching username or twitter.com/username).

Avoid this by… using http://www.donotlink.com/ to hide the tweet’s link, then it will not notify the tweet’s author.

• “Forensic” Twitter – getting evidence for use in court etc

           For anyone who wants to capture Twitter-related evidence [17 Aug 2019]

I am not a lawyer and this is not legal advice (I am not qualified to give it). Be very careful about relying on this information – if I am wrong my advice might damage your case! – and always seek appropriate legal advice if you need it. Different localities will have their own laws and application of those laws. [Page updated 17 Aug 2019 29 Aug 2018]

See further reading at end.

This post is written for people who need to keep an eye on a particular set of tweets, or information on a website. An example might be where someone says something (on Twitter) that crosses a line and may need to result in intervention from Police, statutory bodies or some other legal body, or perhaps it may even end up in court. I have no idea what type of evidence would be required to satisfy a court but here are some suggestions for capturing tweets as evidence, and their limitations.

If you’ve been blocked you can still view and save tweets by logging out, using a third party app (like Echofon for iPhone or Dabr.eu for desktop) or creating a spare account. You can’t reply to a blocker’s tweets but you can reply to other people’s replies to them, if you want your tweet in the thread.

Table of Contents
1. Capturing the tweets while they’re still available
• 1a. Screen capture / screenshot
• 1b. Freezepage
• 1c. Storify or embedding in a blog
• 1d. Capturing the tweets as they’re sent – email notifications or IFTTT
2. Capturing deleted tweets
3. What did they use to send the tweet?
4. Detect changes on another website, or new information being published
5. How many followers did X have at point Y?
6. Fake tweets – screenshots, deletions
7. Further reading

1. Capturing the tweets while they’re still available

In Monroe v Hopkins (see PDF in further reading) section 84 the Judge notes that any litigant (either party in a trial) needs to take responsibility for capturing any tweet-related evidence (“and the responsibility of a solicitor to take reasonable steps to ensure that the client appreciates this responsibility and performs it”). This may include capturing the tweet itself, responses to it, information about how many people have liked or RTed it. You could even plug the tweet’s URL into Facebook to see if anyone’s shared it there too (only the public posts will show up).

1a. Screen capture / screenshot
Have the tweet visible on the screen and take a screenshot. Methods for doing this depend on the device but see [Taking a screenshot] for some suggestions.

For a better picture use desktop Twitter (and include the https:// link that’s visible in the address bar). Most Twitter platforms, including desktop, will also show you who has favourited or RTed the tweet (which may be useful evidence in itself of the spread of the tweet) but you may need to note the accounts that have done this as it’s not necessarily obvious from the pictures (and they may subsequently change their picture). If you hover the mouse over their picture a pop-up of their profile will appear. You can also capture some of the replies to the tweet too.

Note that more people might reply to the tweet later (or favourite it, or RT it) so this process may need to be repeated periodically.

Advantages: captures the tweet as it is, even if later deleted
Limitations: because an image can be altered it may not be deemed strong enough evidence. However I think it would be a ‘not unreasonable supposition’ to believe that someone stating under oath that it is true might satisfy the courts, though see tweet below. You might be lucky and find that others have created a corroborating screenshot or other way of verifying the tweet too. See also Section 6 on faked screenshots.

1b. Freezepage
To capture a copy of the ‘page’ on which the tweet appears (you need to use the tweet’s own address – you can find its URL in the tweet’s timestamp. Make sure you remove the S from the httpS bit of the address [update 22 March – removing the S from https:// to make it http:// may no longer be necessary, but if it gives an error message try that first]. You can create an account, or not http://www.freezepage.com/

1c. Storify or embedding in a blog
Storify no longer available, alternatives here “Alternatives to Storify”

A tweet, once embedded in a Storify story or blog, will remain visible there even once deleted. It will look slightly different (you won’t be able to favourite it or RT it) but it will remain there otherwise exactly as it was.

Storify embeds: Search for the name of the person, or words in the tweet, or if you have its address use the link search to pin it down and save it in your Storify. See [How to use Storify like a pro to collect tweets] for more info.

Blog embeds: Either use the embed tweet option (previously found in the three … dots but this has been replaced with a down arrow to the right of the tweet) or, for WordPress dot com blogs (as this one) you can just use the tweet’s address and it will autoembed.

1d. Capturing the tweets as they’re sent
Email notifications – Generally this is ON by default and you might have already switched it off (it can be a bit annoying). Twitter can send you an email notification when someone sends you a tweet (or when someone likes or retweets your tweet).

Check your email notification settings here

This is an imperfect solution. Note that Twitter won’t email you every notification and it will largely ignore new accounts or those that haven’t confirmed an email address (and  it may be these types of accounts that you need to collect tweets from). Twitter has also changed its notifications – it used to be the case that you’d get a full copy of the text of the tweet and that may no longer be the case. [More on Twitter’s email preferences]

In fact it is likely that Twitter will hide some tweets sent in your mentions (notifications tab) from new or unconfirmed accounts, or even tweets that show up in response to those. It may be worth searching for the tweets (using to:yourusername to search). You can search while logged out but you may get a more complete picture logging in with a spare account.

IFTTT – The free online tool IFTTT (If This, Then That) lets you capture a copy of a ‘corpus’ (“bunch”) of tweets eg all from a particular user or all containing a hashtag. You can have them emailed to you or you can have them collected in a Google Drive spreadsheet or Evernote file. You can even have the tweets rebroadcast to a spare account (though I recommend making it a private one otherwise it’s a bit annoying and spammy).

I’ve not written a blog post specifically about setting up IFTTT but the information can be gleaned from the second part of [Downloading your old Twitter faves, setting up IFTTT to capture new ones] and another post that might be useful on how to use IFTTT is [How to display Instagram pictures correctly in tweets using IFTTT].

With IFTTT you authorise it to access your own Twitter account (to let it interact with Twitter) then authorise another service (whatever you want to use to collect the tweets) eg Google Drive or something else. IFTTT calls the different services channels and the instructions to “if a tweet contains X send an email to Y” a recipe.

2. Capturing deleted tweets
While deleting a tweet removes it from Twitter’s public servers it is still potentially findable by users (in some cases you may need to get a court order to recover it from Twitter’s backup servers, assuming that is possible).

If you are looking for a tweet only a short while after its deletion (I’m not sure exactly how long but it’s a matter of hours and no guarantees) you may find it via Google’s cache (see tiny green arrow in picture below, flanked by orange arrows, that is the link to find a cached copy, if available – manage your expectations though, it’s not all that common to find them in this way but does happen). Note that tweets that have previously been embedded in a blog post or used in a Storify story will still remain even after the tweet is deleted. Other search engines have caches too and you can see an example here http://cachedview.com/


Other things to try if you can’t find the tweet(s) are to see if others have retweeted the text of the tweet(s) [search for words you remember in the tweet] or a screenshot [in which case they may have included the original @handle of the person who deleted the tweet so try searching for to:handle].

If you’re the sort of person who knows what an API is then you might be able to do something on that front but alas this exceeds my knowledge.

3. What did they use to send the tweet?
All tweets used to have additional information below the tweet saying what software had been used to send the tweet but Twitter no longer adds this in. However many third party apps do. Echofon for iPhone and Dabr.eu will tell you how a tweet was sent.

  • Sent via Twitter Web Client generally means the person was using a web browser to send the tweet
  • Sent via Twitter for iPhone (or for Android), etc – fairly explanatory (official Twitter apps)
  • Sent via Echofon for [smartphone] – these are 3rd party apps
  • Sent via Mobile Twitter – they may have used the mobile version of desktop Twitter on their smartphone

Here’s a screenshot of this information for a tweet sent via Dabr.eu, as seen on Dabr.eu.

Screenshot 2018-08-12 17.49.37

Because Echofon is used on a mobile device it’s reasonable to assume that if that was used to send the tweet the person was using a phone. If it says something like ‘Twitter for web’ then they may have tweeted from a desktop computer.

Limitations: On an iPhone it was possible to download the Chrome browser and use Twitter’s desktop version (ie force it to show desktop rather than the more usual mobile-friendly version). Tweets sent in this way would appear as ‘from desktop’ yet would have been sent by mobile phone. It’s a while since I’ve played with this so don’t know if it’s still the case.

4. Detect changes on another website, or new information being published
Use the change detection service and get it to send you an email if the text on a website is amended https://www.changedetection.com/, or you can set up a Google Alert to email you if a particular word or phrase appears in a newly published page on the internet https://www.google.com/alerts

5. How many followers did X have at point Y?
One of the considerations in the recent Monroe v Hopkins Twitter libel case considered how many followers the parties had at the time the relevant tweets were made. This was estimated but in some cases you’d be able to find the exact number thanks to the Internet Archive‘s ‘Wayback Machine‘ which periodically saves copies of web pages and stores them for future searching.

Whether or not someone’s Twitter account has been archived will probably be fairly random (and presumably new accounts won’t be included – though you can of course manually add their page to the archive, or use Freezepage as mentioned above) – I was quite pleased to find that my page has been archived. The Internet Archive takes snapshots at particular time points, often several months apart – it’s pot luck what’s there.

The Internet Archive has taken several snapshots of my Twitter account and one, made at 14:52 on 14 Feb 2010 showed that I had 820 followers, by 3 August 2014 this had increased to 3,631. My account has had 44 snapshots taken between 23 Dec 2008 and 9 Jan 2017. Use the format https://twitter.com/USERNAME and insert it here to test an account’s history.

6. Fake tweets – screenshots, deletions
(i) It is possible to open the Inspector panel on a browser (on Firefox on a Mac this is Command+Alt/Option+i). If you have a tweet open while doing this you can search for the text of the tweet within the Inspector panel that appears and edit it. Clicking back in the main browser window will show a fake tweet which could then be captured with a screenshot. Of course screenshots can also be faked with (ii) Photoshop-type editing or (iii) copying the text of someone else’s tweet onto a screenshot. I don’t know how prevalent this is but I’ve seen a suspected example this evening (I don’t know which of the methods suggested above they used to create it).

I asked about (i) and received confirmation from Sean Ellis who also pointed out that you could also just (iv) download a local copy of the web page, manipulate the underlying HTML code in notepad and reload a local copy and take a screenshot. There seem to be a lot of ways of cheating!

If you add extra numbers to the end of a tweet’s URL / link you are effectively creating a tweet that has never been published. When pressing enter, to open the tweet, Twitter will return a page not found – which looks as if the person has deleted the tweet. Here’s an example I created for myself using two numbers repeated to make it clear what I did.


It looks like this on the page. The page never existed!

Screenshot 2018-08-29 23.48.59

7. Further reading

How did that person find me on Twitter?

Sometimes you might find that you’ve been followed or tweeted to by someone that you weren’t expecting to find you on Twitter. This can happen for several reasons:

  • they already follow other mutual friends and Twitter’s algorithms have suggested you as a possibility
  • they searched for your name or someone told them (this includes your tweet being retweeted into their timeline)
  • the email address you’ve used for Twitter is in their email contacts list and they’ve let Twitter trawl that list to find people’s matched Twitter handles – you can switch this off by making yourself less discoverable (make sure “Let others find me by my email address” is unticked)
  • you’ve added your mobile phone number to Twitter during registration (make sure “Let others find me by my phone number” is unticked too (also you can remove your phone)
  • you’ve added your Twitter info to your website

If you’ve changed your Twitter name / handle in the hope of being less findable then remember that this probably won’t work. Threaded conversations (if you click on a tweet you’ll see all its replies) will likely indicate your current name because any reply you sent previously will now be attributed to your new Twitter name.

“Although an account can change its @handle, it can never change its Twitter ID” – http://tweeterid.com/

Searching for a link (URL, address) on Twitter

Twitter’s search will let you find almost* all the tweets that contain a particular link. You can just plug in part of the link into search (desktop Twitter‘s best for this). To view all the tweets choose ‘live’ from the options and scroll down to go further into the past.

What have your friends said about this link?
If you want to see what people you follow have tweeted about this link you can restrict the search just to them. This can be useful if you click on a link earlier in the day, forget who sent it but want to acknowledge them in a tweet you subsequently send – you can work out from whom you saw the tweet.

Screen Shot 2015-07-18 at 00.54.36

Screen Shot 2015-07-18 at 00.54.45

A note on how to search for a link – try different bits of the address
Twitter’s search can be a bit mercurial – or, I haven’t worked out exactly what’s going on yet. Sometimes putting the entire link in yields nothing… sometimes it yields something. I generally select a bit of the link and choose a bit that’s likely to winnow out irrelevant tweets.

A note on the appearance of the link
Twitter does not distinguish among modified (shortened) links that point to the same web page, so searching will bring up a variety of different-links all going to the same place.

Example: here’s an address: http://www.theguardian.com/healthcare-network/views-from-the-nhs-frontline/2015/jul/13/wasting-gps-time-no-i-cant-prescribe-you-new-shoes and if you search for it on Twitter you’ll get these results which include these shortened versions of the URL which all point to the same page

If you want to share a link without having it show up in searches try something like donotlink.com (effectively it ‘cloaks’ the link by pointing to an intermediate site first).

Saving time when searching again
If you’ve just searched for apples and bananas you’ll first see all the Top tweets and then have to click ‘Live‘ to see all of them. If you decide you want to search for apples and pears you can avoid this two-step process by editing the search-result-link in the address bar (desktop Twitter only).

The first link is: https://twitter.com/search?q=apples%20and%20bananas&src=typd&vertical=default&f=tweets

Replace bananas with pears and press ‘go’.