List of resources for finding Public Domain, Creative Commons or otherwise free images

I’ve been using Pixabay for a while ever since a colleague told me about it, it’s amazing. I also came across Pexels and periodically gather other things together. I’ve known about NASA images and CDC PHIL for years and Flickr of course as resources of images but I keep finding more. This excellent blog post (10 Sites for Free Stock Photos (Updated for 2018) by Sean Filidis) lists a whole load of ones I’d not heard of.

I’ve added some extra ones to Sean’s list (mine are asterisked) but you should definitely go and look at Sean’s post because he says a bit more about what each site offers.

Further reading at the end 🙂

  1. * CDC PHIL (Public Health Image Library) – public health image library (example of CDC’s request for acknowledgement “This image is in the public domain and thus free of any copyright restrictions. As a matter of courtesy we request that the content provider be credited and notified in any public or private usage of this image.NB these include medical images and search results may not be suitable for children.
  2. * Creative Commons search
  3. * Flickr Advanced Search – change the ‘Any licence’ option to suit. The obvious white search bar in the middle is, curiously, not the actual search bar despite the cursor arriving there first. The minute you start typing in it the secondary grey search bar at the top will immediately take over, so you might as well write there anyway. I cannot account for it!

    Flickr advanced search showing where to access licence options Screenshot 2018-10-16 14.23.53.png

  4. * Freebies Gallery (formerly Public Photo)
  5. * Google Images (handy tip: use -pinterest in your search, then adjust the licence you want, Tools » Usage rights)

    Google Image search for flowers showing Tools and Usage rights aka License options Screenshot 2018-10-16 14.20.35.png

  6. Gratisography
  7. Morguefile
  8. * NASA – I think almost all US Government department images, when taken as part of publicly-funded work, are free to use though they might like credit too. Here are NASA’s media-use guidelines.
  9. Picjumbo
  10. Pexels
  11. Pikwizard
  12. Pixabay <– I’ve used this one a lot
  13. * Public Domain Review – a collection of collections, eg this lovely one on comets aka Flowers of the Sky.
  14. Rawpixel
  15. Reshot
  16. * Science Museum Group collection – use freely, but only for non-commercial projects. Images are from the Science Museum in London, Railway Museum etc
  17. Stockvault
  18. Unsplash
  19. * Wellcome Collection images – free to use with attribution (credit) but check for individual photos

An * just means I’ve added this resource to Sean’s list (also reordered alphabetically).

1. What terms mean and how you can use images

Images that are labelled as Public Domain (or CC0) can be used for any purpose including commercial and you don’t need to credit the person who took it (but it’s still nice if you do) or pay for it. Creative Commons-labelled images have different ‘levels’ of how they can be used – they don’t cost money but you may have to credit the author, and you may not be able to use them on commercial projects. Some image repositories (like Pixabay) share images that can be used under a very relaxed license but also include a tip jar so that you can ping the author the equivalent of a cup of coffee.

See also Best practices for (Creative Commons) attribution

2. Embedding images into blog posts (for example)

Obviously if you’re printing a brochure you’d need to be able to download a high-res image and attribute as appropriate (or not needed if CC0, or no attribution requested).

Flickr, for example, generally takes care of attribution itself.

  1. Autoembedding from link: For a WordPress.com blog like this one simply pasting the link into the post will result in the image appearing, already linking back to its page on Flickr for people to find out who took it.
  2. Embed code: For Blogger.com sites this auto-embedding doesn’t work so for things like that you’d use the embed code. The code carries attribution info and a link back so is just another way of doing (1)
  3. Downloading: You can save a copy of the image then upload to your site – doing this means it will no longer carry any info about author attribution (beyond the filename, unless you change it). You would need to add a caption or find some other way of referencing it appropriately.

3. Further reading

Advertisements

Remember Twitter screenshots can be faked

Recently on Twitter there was an example of a journalist being called out for having sent an unpleasant tweet to someone. It soon became clear that they hadn’t sent it – it was a fabrication sent from a very new account which shortly afterwards disappeared entirely. It was a smear attempt.

There was some discussion about the increase in faked screenshots (they’ve always been around but mostly used in a jokey way until recently) and also about the ways in which screenshots can be manipulated.

Here are some suggested possibilities, although all are functional methods they’re also all speculative as we’ve no idea how the person created the malicious tweet.

Although this post does give information about how to fake tweets or how to fake screenshots the intention isn’t to encourage anyone to do this but to make people more aware of the possibility and to treat screenshotted tweets with some caution, and not to assume the worst. You might also like my post on Twitter forensics.

1. Combining images
A fake account could send a genuine tweet and the screenshot of its text could be overlaid on the area occupied by a real tweet from the ‘target’ account. The fake tweet might then be deleted to reduce the chance of it being discovered and raising suspicion.

2. Image / text manipulation
Things like Photoshop / Word / PowerPoint could be used to generate new text that matches the appearance of a tweet (type / font size etc) and be used to create a fake tweet from scratch.

3. Editing the appearance of the tweet on-screen, then taking a screenshot of that
I remember seeing a tweet warning about this being a possibility but couldn’t remember what it said so I asked Twitter and Sean Ellis confirmed that this was possible, so I tried this out myself on Firefox and it’s quite easy to do (I assume it’s more or less the same for other browsers but haven’t checked).

With a tweet open on the browser so that its URL is visible in the address bar you can open the Inspector panel (Command+Alt/Option+i on a Mac) and re-write the tweet that appears in front of you. It won’t change the actual real published tweet, just what’s on your screen. But you can screenshot it and it looks real.

Search in the Inspector window for a phrase that appears within your tweet’s text. I found five examples of it but only the one that referenced TweetTextSize was the one that let me edit it.

a) The actual tweet (below)

b) Screenshot of the real tweet (below)

Screenshot 2018-08-30 20.12.09

c) View of the tweet online with Inspector window open. I’ve searched for the word discoveries which appears towards the end of the tweet (you might need to search for a word that appears earlier if the text is truncated – there were 3 instances of discoveries but 5 of bowels!)

Note the smaller text below the tweet where I’ve written different text, it says “You can write anything in here and when I click back in the tweet it will show up there too. This is a fake tweet screenshot made for illustrative purposes.”

Screenshot 2018-08-30 20.10.10

d) Screenshot of the fake tweet (below)

Screenshot 2018-08-30 20.10.29

Sean also pointed out that you could probably download a local copy of any web page, manipulate the underlying HTML code in notepad and reload a local copy and take a screenshot. There seem to be a lot of ways of cheating!

4. Faking a ‘deleted tweet’
If you add extra numbers to the end of a tweet’s URL / link you are effectively creating a tweet that has never been published. When pressing enter, to open the tweet, Twitter will return a ‘page not found’ error page. It looks as if the person has deleted the tweet but it never existed.

Here’s an example I created for myself using two numbers repeated to make it clear what I did.

https://twitter.com/JoBrodie/status/121212121212121212121212121212121212

It looks like this on the page.

Screenshot 2018-08-29 23.48.59

Featured image from Pixabay

Occasional workaround for reading US websites which are skittish about EU visitors, GDPR and cookies

tl;dr version
Search for the URL itself, read the cached copy.

Audio version of this post:

Recently there has been a spate of American news sites returning a page that says the content isn’t available to me since I’m in the UK / EU and, because I’m subject to some unspecified horror to do with the GDPR and cookies, the website is worried about me seeing it and hopes I might just go away.

About 90 per cent of the time this problem is rapidly solved by searching for and reading Google’s cache of the page. The appearance may be a little different but the text is usually there and perfectly readable. Here’s an example of how to do this.

Yesterday I wanted to read the awful story about a young black woman who died after it was assumed she’d not be able to pay for the ambulance service that she needed. Her mother had found her slumped in the bath after she’d collapsed with a suspected stroke. She’d given birth via C section a few days before.

Here’s the address I clicked on (via a tweet)

https://www.wpbf.com/article/mom-of-woman-who-died-claims-medics-assumed-daughter-couldn-t-afford-ambulance-ride/22558170

On clicking the link the page said

Screenshot 2018-07-28 11.04.50.png
Fig 1. “Sorry, this content is not available in your region.”

Try this – it doesnt always work though
The next stage is to copy that address / URL (the wpbf.com bit next to the green padlock) – the quickest way to do that is to put the cursor into that address bar, it should automatically select the URL but if not Ctrl+A will do that. Then Ctrl+C to copy and open a new tab with your preferred search engine and paste (Ctrl+V) into the search bar and search [see also: handy keyboard shortcuts]

Screenshot 2018-07-28 11.04.21.png
Fig 2. Search results returned after searching for the web address / URL itself

Ignore the top stories option. You might just about be able to make out a tiny little green arrowhead pointing downwards to the right of the green URL for this search result. That’s where Google hides the cache of its pages. Here’s a close-up.

screen-shot-2016-10-16-at-21-24-12
Fig 3. Where to find cached copies of pages, if available

Clicking on the green arrow will bring up a menu saying ‘Cached’ and clicking on that usually, but not always, bring up the page you want – it did in this case too.

Screenshot 2018-07-28 11.30.21
Fig 4. In this instance the cached copy was available and readable

The entire text is visible but for copyright reasons I’ll leave it at that. Here’s the link if you want to read it yourself, it’s a sobering read.

This is a very useful and more widely applicable trick
There are other cases (*cough*) where content isn’t shown to you, for all sorts of un-GDPR related reasons. It is nearly always worth checking the cached version first before either admitting defeat, asking a friend for a copy or reading a different newspaper’s story.

For the exceptionally patient
At the bottom of Fig 2 there’s a paragraph of text beneath the green URL and the green padlock. Google can nearly always read the page (whether there’s a cached version or not) even if you can’t. If you search for a phrase that appears there (put it in ” ” marks when searching) then Google will show that phrase in the search results, often in context which means it may show other bits of surrounding text. Frankly it takes ages but it may be possible (I’ve done it to uncover and reference a quote for work once) to work your way through very slowly and uncover a large portion or even the entirety of the otherwise hidden text.

Further reading
Google cache (& other search engines): finding deleted pages or seeing your words on the page in colour (this blog)

Troubleshooting Twitter: how to find answers to common questions

Screenshot 2018-06-28 00.18.42

I see a lot of the same queries about Twitter crop up frequently on the #TwitterHelp hashtag, most of which have already been answered on Twitter’s own help site.

For example how to change your city for Twitter trends | uploading a video | finding out why your tweets are missing, or aren’t showing in search | how to unlock or recover a suspended account (where this is possible) … and so on

If you’re looking for an answer to a particular Twitter-related query or are trying to troubleshoot something then this post should point you in some helpful directions.

1. Searching on Google and other search engines
If I know a solution or have some suggestions I’ll try and answer. If I need to check something first I usually type in some relevant search terms, the word Twitter and occasionally site:help.twitter.com into my preferred search engine (it’s Google). That last one searches for mentions of whatever I’m trying to find in Twitter’s help files. If I omit that then the search will cover any website (including this one) as lots of people write ‘how to’ blog posts about Twitter.

2. Searching on Twitter itself
There’s a high chance that someone else will have asked / answered your query. If you can’t log in for any reason you can still search at https://twitter.com/search-home or https://twitter.com/search-advanced. The #TwitterHelp hashtag might help too.

3. Searching Quora
You can visit Quora itself and search there or just add Quora to search engine searches, for example https://www.google.co.uk/search?q=site:quora.com+twitter+video

4. For more technical stuff look at Twitter developers’ forums
https://developer.twitter.com/, https://developer.twitter.com/en/community and https://twittercommunity.com/

5. All the other pages you can play with on Twitter

Found by searching for site:*.twitter.com on Google

 

The “from:user” search workaround for seeing a blocker’s tweets (while still logged in) has stopped working

Updated 11 July 2018: still seems to work OK on https://dabr.eu

There are a lot of people making misleading (and occasionally illegal) health claims on Twitter. When you challenge them they often block you. This has happened to me (and many other skeptic bloggers, scientists, healthcare professionals etc), and my early efforts at finding out how to monitor such accounts and tweets is a large part of why I now have this blog about how Twitter appears to work!

Of course being blocked has never stopped anyone from reading a blocker’s tweets as you can always just log out (or use a spare account, or an incognito window) to view anyone’s tweets, as long as the blocker’s account is public.

One disadvantage of being logged out, particularly if you use desktop Twitter, is that you can see only their broadcast tweets and not their ‘Tweets and replies‘ tab. To get around that the search string   »from:username«   had, until yesterday, been a simple workaround while logged in as the blocked account, on desktop or the official mobile app.

As of yesterday it no longer works while logged in as the blocked account – I don’t know if that’s a glitch or a permanent change to Twitter’s search function but for now it looks like your options for viewing tweets from someone who’s blocked you are as follows

  • Log out and use the  »from:username«  search style to view replies as well as broadcast tweets
  • As above in an incognito window (for Twitter searching purposes the two are logiclly the same)
  • Log into a spare account and you can either use the above search strategy or just visit their page (assuming they’ve not blocked your spare account)
  • Use Dabr.co.uk – you can even log in (for the time being, it might change) – as of early July the page seems to be down but https://dabr.eu is still up
  • Try other non-official phone apps too…

You can also search  »to:username«  to see tweets sent to that account if you like.

To see the tweets of someone whom you’ve blocked is as it always was – visit their profile and click on the ‘View tweets’ button.

How to download your Facebook profile data (with screenshots)

This post accompanies the previous post: How to switch off Facebook platform apps 

You may be interested to see what data Facebook has kept about your use of Facebook and interactions with other people. Instructions are below.

If you’re an Android phone user it seems that Facebook may have kept copies of information about who you’ve called and when, and even the text of … the texts. As an iPhone user I can’t be too reassured though because if I’ve texted friends of mine who have an Android phone with Facebook on it then I can probably assume that (a) data about me are embedded with theirs and (b) I can’t access it directly (perhaps I could do a Subject Access Request, though presumably my information is held overseas).

Facebook’s Data Policy wants you to: “Bear in mind that information that others have shared about you is not part of your account and will not be deleted when you delete your account.” (from “How can I manage or delete information about me?”).

I downloaded my own data the other day and didn’t actually find much in there that concerned me – possibly because I switched off Facebook Platform Applications years ago – beyond noting that Facebook has every single contacted uploaded to my phone before 2009. I’m now using a different phone and phone number and haven’t shared that with Facebook. I do use Facebook on my iPhone, but not through the app and only by logging in on Safari. This probably doesn’t do a great deal (beyond psychological) to protect my data as I do have WhatsApp on my phone (and it can access my contacts) and Facebook owns WhatsApp 😉

A) How to download your Facebook data (below)
B) How to switch off Facebook platform apps (previous blog post)

A) How to download your Facebook data

Facebook’s own instructions (much shorter than mine, which you might prefer!) and here’s what you might expect to see in your own download, depending on your settings.

  1. Log in to Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/ on desktop / browser (don’t think you can do this on the phone app…?)
  2. Go to your Settings page: https://www.facebook.com/settings (or use the on-screen menu to get there, using that little white arrow to the right of the question mark, then click on Settings).
    Screenshot 2018-03-25 11.57.50.png
  3. At the bottom of the page click on “Download a copy’ of your Facebook data”, marked with a yellow box in the picture below.
    Screenshot 2018-03-25 12.01.11
  4. Click the green “Download Archive” button
    Screenshot 2018-03-25 12.04.21.png
  5. You’ll be asked to re-enter your password, do this and Submit
    Screenshot 2018-03-25 12.07.50
  6. You’ll be shown the file-download info box for your computer, mine’s a Mac and looks like thisScreenshot 2018-03-25 12.09.50
  7. Save the .zip file – it’ll likely default to being in your Downloaded files area but you may wish to move it into a particular location first before ‘unboxing’ it and seeing what’s in there.
  8. Unzip the (compressed) .zip file – on a Mac this appears to be an automatic thing using a built-in unzipping program. If your computer doesn’t unzip the file you may need to download a free unzipping utility program but here are Windows instructions on uncompressing .zip files.
  9. You’ll end up with a set of folders and an index.htm file.
    Screenshot 2018-03-25 12.18.11
    That index file will open up into your browser window (it is not ON the web, it is a local copy that only you can see, doing this has not published it anywhere – you’ll see file://Users or something like that where the ‘link’ or ‘URL’ would normally be). You can very easily interact with the information by clicking on the menu options on the left. Alternatively you can drill into each folder and open up individual pages.
    Screenshot 2018-03-25 12.23.50.png
  10. You can download a fresh copy of your data as often as you like
  11. Be careful about sharing the data within your download, as you ‘ll have other people’s info in there too, not just yours.

How to switch off Facebook platform apps (stopping Fb sharing more data through others’ use of apps)

It’s entirely possible that this is unnecessary. Apparently Facebook blocked apps that your friends were using from accessing your data back in 2014 (I only discovered this last week) so doing this now may be pointless, but I did this a few years ago, as well as blocking apps individually, and here’s how you do it.

  1. Log in to Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/ on desktop / browser (don’t think you can do this on the phone app…?)
  2. Go to your App Settings page: https://www.facebook.com/settings?tab=applications (or use the on-screen menu to get there, using that little white arrow to the right of the question mark, then click on Settings, then Apps in the menu that will appear on the left).
    Screenshot 2018-03-25 11.57.50.png
  3. Click on each of the Edit buttons to change your settings to your preferences. As you can see from mine my preference is to switch things OFF.I have ‘Apps, Websites and Plug-ins’ disabled…
    Screenshot 2018-03-25 12.28.50
    I have ‘Apps, Websites and Plug-ins’ disabled – that’s the Platform Apps one, and when I click on ‘Edit’ here’s what my settings look like.
    Screenshot 2018-03-25 12.41.23For ‘Apps others use’ I would have previously unticked any option that might have been ticked, though to be honest this is probably superseded by having switched off the platform apps option anyway. But I am a bit ‘belts and braces’ when it comes to Facebook.
    Screenshot 2018-03-25 12.36.45.png